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US: 3 US-based economists receive economics Nobel Prize

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STOCKHOLM (AP) — Three U.S-based economists won the 2021 Nobel prize for economics on Monday for pioneering research on the labor market impacts of minimum wage, immigration and education, and for creating the scientific framework to allow conclusions to be drawn from such studies that can’t use traditional methodology.

Permanent Secretary of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences Goran K Hansson, center, announces the 2021 Nobel prize for economics, flanked by members of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences Peter Fredriksson, left, and Eva Mork, during a press conference at the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, in Stockholm, Sweden, Monday, Oct. 11, 2021. From left on the screen above are the winners David Card of the University of California at Berkeley; Joshua Angrist from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology; and Guido Imbens from Stanford University.  (Claudio Bresciani/TT via AP) © Provided by Associated Press Permanent Secretary of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences Goran K Hansson, center, announces the 2021 Nobel prize for economics, flanked by members of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences Peter Fredriksson, left, and Eva Mork, during a press conference at the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, in Stockholm, Sweden, Monday, Oct. 11, 2021. From left on the screen above are the winners David Card of the University of California at Berkeley; Joshua Angrist from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology; and Guido Imbens from Stanford University. (Claudio Bresciani/TT via AP) From left, on the screen are the winners of the 2021 Nobel prize for economics; David Card of the University of California at Berkeley; Joshua Angrist from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology; and Guido Imbens from Stanford University, announced during a press conference at the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, in Stockholm, Sweden, Monday, Oct. 11, 2021. (Claudio Bresciani/TT via AP) © Provided by Associated Press From left, on the screen are the winners of the 2021 Nobel prize for economics; David Card of the University of California at Berkeley; Joshua Angrist from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology; and Guido Imbens from Stanford University, announced during a press conference at the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, in Stockholm, Sweden, Monday, Oct. 11, 2021. (Claudio Bresciani/TT via AP)

Canadian-born David Card of the University of California at Berkeley was awarded one half of the prize, while the other half was shared by Joshua Angrist from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Dutch-born Guido Imbens, 58, from Stanford University.

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The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences said the three have “completely reshaped empirical work in the economic sciences.”

“Card’s studies of core questions for society and Angrist and Imbens’ methodological contributions have shown that natural experiments are a rich source of knowlege,” said Peter Fredriksson, chair of the Economic Sciences Committee. “Their research has substantially improved our ability to answer key causal questions, which has been of great benefit for society.”

Permanent Secretary of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences Goran K Hansson, center, announces the 2021 Nobel prize for economics, flanked by members of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences Peter Fredriksson, left, and Eva Mork, during a press conference at the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, in Stockholm, Sweden, Monday, Oct. 11, 2021. From left on the screen above are the winners David Card of the University of California at Berkeley; Joshua Angrist from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology; and Guido Imbens from Stanford University.  (Claudio Bresciani/TT via AP) © Provided by Associated Press Permanent Secretary of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences Goran K Hansson, center, announces the 2021 Nobel prize for economics, flanked by members of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences Peter Fredriksson, left, and Eva Mork, during a press conference at the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, in Stockholm, Sweden, Monday, Oct. 11, 2021. From left on the screen above are the winners David Card of the University of California at Berkeley; Joshua Angrist from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology; and Guido Imbens from Stanford University. (Claudio Bresciani/TT via AP)

Card worked on research that used restaurants in New Jersey and in eastern Pennsylvania to measure the effects of increasing the minimum wage. He and his late research partner Alan Krueger found that an increase in the hourly minimum wage did not affect employment, challenging conventional wisdom which held that an increase in minimum wage will lead to less hiring.

Chemistry Nobel Prize goes to German Benjamin List and US Researcher David MacMillan for methods for accelerating chemical reactions

 Chemistry Nobel Prize goes to German Benjamin List and US Researcher David MacMillan for methods for accelerating chemical reactions Scientific Nobel prices go to an end with the awarding in category Chemistry. Benjamin List and David MacMillan were honored for methods for accelerating chemical reactions. While the Nobel Committee in Stockholm explains his decision in a live presentation, we have for you the most important information about the winners and their excellent research. We will complement each other again here. The Chemistry Nobel Prize The chemistry was the most important science for Alfred Nobels.

Card’s work also challenged another commonly held idea, that immigrants depress wages for native-born workers. He found that incomes of the native-born can benefit from new immigration, while it is earlier immigrants who are at risk of being negatively affected.

FILE - A Tuesday, Dec. 8, 2020 file photo of a Nobel Prize medal. The Nobel Prize for Economics will be announced on Monday Oct. 11, 2021. (AP Photo/Jacquelyn Martin, File) © Provided by Associated Press FILE - A Tuesday, Dec. 8, 2020 file photo of a Nobel Prize medal. The Nobel Prize for Economics will be announced on Monday Oct. 11, 2021. (AP Photo/Jacquelyn Martin, File)

Angrist and Imbens won their half of the award for working out the methodological issues that enable economists to draw solid conclusions about cause and effect even where they cannot carry out studies according to strict scientific methods.

FILE - A April 17, 2015 file photo shows a gold Nobel Prize medal. The Nobel Prize for Economics will be announced on Monday Oct. 11, 2021. (AP Photo/Fernando Vergara, File) © Provided by Associated Press FILE - A April 17, 2015 file photo shows a gold Nobel Prize medal. The Nobel Prize for Economics will be announced on Monday Oct. 11, 2021. (AP Photo/Fernando Vergara, File)

Speaking by phone from his home in Massachusetts, Imbens told reporters gathered for the announcement that he had been asleep when the call came.

The Nobel of Literature at Abdulrazak Gurnah, Exile Voice and Migrants

 The Nobel of Literature at Abdulrazak Gurnah, Exile Voice and Migrants © Via Reuters The Tanzanian Abdulrazak Gurnah, Immigration Nursery, is the Nobel Prize 2021. Abdulrazak Gurnah, Tanzanian writer emigrated to England, Received yesterday the Nobel Prize, succeeding the American poet Louise Glück. His abusing novels, which take place between England and Zanzibar, talk about the wealth and pain of emigration. If the novelist is little known in France, three of his ten books have been translated. It is the novelist of exile, uprooting, colonialism pain.

“The whole house was asleep, we had a busy weekend.” said Imbens. ”I was absolutely thrilled to hear the news. ”

He said he was especially thrilled for Angrist, who was best man at his wedding.

Unlike the other Nobel prizes, the economics award wasn’t established in the will of Alfred Nobel but by the Swedish central bank in his memory in 1968, with the first winner selected a year later. It is the last prize announced each year.

Last week, the 2021 Nobel Peace Prize was awarded to journalists Maria Ressa of the Philippines and Dmitry Muratov of Russia for their fight for freedom of expression in countries where reporters have faced persistent attacks, harassment and even murder.

Ressa was the only woman honored this year in any category.

The Nobel Prize for literature was awarded to U.K.-based Tanzanian writer Abdulrazak Gurnah, who was recognized for his “uncompromising and compassionate penetration of the effects of colonialism and the fate of the refugee.”

The prize for physiology or medicine went to Americans David Julius and Ardem Patapoutian for their discoveries into how the human body perceives temperature and touch.

Three scientists won the physics prize for work that found order in seeming disorder, helping to explain and predict complex forces of nature, including expanding our understanding of climate change.

Benjamin List and David W.C. MacMillan won the chemistry prize for finding an easier and environmentally cleaner way to build molecules that can be used to make compounds, including medicines and pesticides.

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Read more stories about Nobel Prizes past and present by The Associated Press at https://www.apnews.com/NobelPrizes

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