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US: In shadow of Texas gas drilling sites, health fears escalate

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ARLINGTON, Texas (AP) — At a playground outside a North Texas day care center, giggling preschoolers chase each other into a playhouse. Toddlers scoot by on tricycles. A boy cries as a teacher helps him negotiate over a toy.

Rosalia Tejeda, second from left, plays with her children, from left, son Juscianni Blackeller, 13; Adaliana Gray, 5, and Audrey Gray, 2, in their backyard in Arlington, Texas, Monday, Oct. 25, 2021. As Tejeda, 38, has learned more about health risks posed by fracking for natural gas, she has become a vocal opponent of a plan to add more natural gas wells at a site near her home. (AP Photo/Martha Irvine) © Provided by Associated Press Rosalia Tejeda, second from left, plays with her children, from left, son Juscianni Blackeller, 13; Adaliana Gray, 5, and Audrey Gray, 2, in their backyard in Arlington, Texas, Monday, Oct. 25, 2021. As Tejeda, 38, has learned more about health risks posed by fracking for natural gas, she has become a vocal opponent of a plan to add more natural gas wells at a site near her home. (AP Photo/Martha Irvine)

Uphill from the playground, peeking between trees, is a site where Total Energies is pumping for natural gas. The French energy giant wants to drill three new wells on the property next to Mother's Heart Learning Center, which serves mainly Black and Latino children. The three wells, along with two existing ones, would lie about 600 feet from where the children planted a garden of sunflowers.

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For the families of the children and for others nearby, it's a prospect fraught with fear and anxiety. Living too close to drilling sites has been linked to a range of health risks, especially to children, from asthma to neurological and developmental disorders. And while some states are requiring energy companies to drill farther from day cares, schools and homes, Texas has taken the opposite tack: It has made it exceedingly difficult for localities to fight back.

A natural gas well is juxtaposed with apartment buildings a few hundred feet away in Arlington, Texas, on Monday, Oct. 25, 2021. The site, known as © Provided by Associated Press A natural gas well is juxtaposed with apartment buildings a few hundred feet away in Arlington, Texas, on Monday, Oct. 25, 2021. The site, known as "AC-360," is operated by TEP Barnett, a subsidiary of French energy giant Total Energies. It is one of Total's 33 well sites in Arlington that contain 163 wells. The company has proposed adding three new wells at this site. Some residents of the predominately Hispanic and Black neighborhood, as well as parents and staff at a daycare near the site, oppose the plan, citing health concerns. (AP Photo/Martha Irvine)

The affected areas go beyond day care centers and schools close to drilling sites. They include communities near related infrastructure — compressor stations, for example, which push gas through pipelines and emit toxic fumes, and export facilities, where gas is cooled before being shipped overseas.

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Wanda Vincent prepares to check the temperature of 2-year-old Olivia Grace Charles, who holds the hand of her mother, Guerda Philemond, outside the Mother's Heart Learning Center in Arlington, Texas, on Monday, Oct. 25, 2021. Philemond is worried about a proposal to add three new gas wells at a drill site that's a few hundred feet from the day care and several residences. The fracking site is operated by TEP Barnett, a subsidiary of French energy giant Total Energies. (AP Photo/Martha Irvine) © Provided by Associated Press Wanda Vincent prepares to check the temperature of 2-year-old Olivia Grace Charles, who holds the hand of her mother, Guerda Philemond, outside the Mother's Heart Learning Center in Arlington, Texas, on Monday, Oct. 25, 2021. Philemond is worried about a proposal to add three new gas wells at a drill site that's a few hundred feet from the day care and several residences. The fracking site is operated by TEP Barnett, a subsidiary of French energy giant Total Energies. (AP Photo/Martha Irvine)

On Tuesday night, the City Council in this city situated between Dallas and Fort Worth is scheduled to vote on Total's latest drilling request. Last year, the council denied Total's request. The rejection came at a time when Black Lives Matter protests after George Floyd's murder by police had led many American communities to take a deeper look at racial disparities. But with time having passed and with some turnover on the City Council, many residents worry that this time Total will succeed.

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And they fear the consequences.

A staff member at the Mother's Heart Learning Center, in background, opens a door to let children inside from the center's playground in Arlington, Texas, on Monday, Oct. 25, 2021. The fracking pond in the foreground is part of a natural gas drill site, known as © Provided by Associated Press A staff member at the Mother's Heart Learning Center, in background, opens a door to let children inside from the center's playground in Arlington, Texas, on Monday, Oct. 25, 2021. The fracking pond in the foreground is part of a natural gas drill site, known as "AC-360," a few hundred feet from the daycare. The site is operated by TEP Barnett, a subsidiary of French energy giant Total Energies. It is one of Total's 33 well sites in Arlington containing 163 natural gas wells, most of them tucked in urban neighborhoods in Arlington. (AP Photo/Martha Irvine)

“I’m trying to protect my little one,” said Guerda Philemond, whose 2-year-old, Olivia Grace Charles, attends the day care. “There’s a lot of land, empty space they can drill. It doesn’t have to be in the back yard of a day care."

Frank and Michelle Meeks stand in their backyard in Arlington, Texas, on Sunday, Oct. 24, 2021, with a fracking site, hidden by © Provided by Associated Press Frank and Michelle Meeks stand in their backyard in Arlington, Texas, on Sunday, Oct. 24, 2021, with a fracking site, hidden by "sound walls," looming behind them. The site, called "Rocking Horse," is operated by TEP Barnett, a subsidiary of French energy giant Total Energies and is just a few hundred feet from their home. Beyond concerns about long-term health risks posed by fracking, the Meeks say they've endured frequent drilling noise and vibration in recent months. They and other neighbors also say the drilling has damaged their homes' foundations. (AP Photo/Martha Irvine)

Total declined a request for an interview to discuss the matter. But in a statement, the company said it has operated near Mother’s Heart for more than a decade without any safety concerns expressed by the City of Arlington.

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“We listen to and do understand the concerns of the local communities with whom we interact frequently to ensure we operate in harmony with them and the local authorities,” the statement said.

The clash in Arlington comes against the backdrop of pledges from world leaders to reduce emissions, burn less fossil fuel and transition to cleaner energy. Yet the world’s reliance on natural gas is growing, not declining. As soon as next year, the United States is set to become the world’s largest exporter of liquid natural gas, or LNG, according to Rystad Energy.

As a result, despite pressure for energy companies to shift their spending to cleaner technologies, there will likely be more drilling for natural gas in Arlington and other communities. And children who spend time near drilling sites or natural gas distribution centers — in neighborhoods that critics call “sacrifice zones” — may face a growing risk of developing neurological or learning problems and exposure to carcinogens. A report by Physicians for Social Responsibility and Concerned Health Professionals of New York, which reviewed dozens of scientific studies, found that the public health risks associated with these sites include cancers, asthma, respiratory diseases, rashes, heart problems and mental health disorders.

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Wanda Vincent sheds a tear on Saturday, Oct. 23, 2021, during an interview at the Mother's Heart Learning Center in Arlington, Texas. Vincent, who owns the day care, is upset about a proposal to add natural gas wells at a nearby fracking site that's operated by TEP Barnett, a subsidiary of French energy giant Total Energies. The proposal, which was rejected last year during nationwide Black Lives Matter protests, got initial approval from the city's planning commission in October, despite continued opposition from Vincent, parents and residents in the neighborhood. They worry about long- and short-term impacts of drilling, particularly on the children in the community. (AP Photo/Martha Irvine) © Provided by Associated Press Wanda Vincent sheds a tear on Saturday, Oct. 23, 2021, during an interview at the Mother's Heart Learning Center in Arlington, Texas. Vincent, who owns the day care, is upset about a proposal to add natural gas wells at a nearby fracking site that's operated by TEP Barnett, a subsidiary of French energy giant Total Energies. The proposal, which was rejected last year during nationwide Black Lives Matter protests, got initial approval from the city's planning commission in October, despite continued opposition from Vincent, parents and residents in the neighborhood. They worry about long- and short-term impacts of drilling, particularly on the children in the community. (AP Photo/Martha Irvine)

Most vulnerable are non-white families. Many of the wells Total has drilled in Arlington are near Latino and Black or low-income communities, often just a few hundred feet from homes. A statistical analysis by The Associated Press of the locations of wells Total operates in Arlington shows that their density is higher in neighborhoods that many people of color call home.

Asked about that finding, Total did not respond directly but said its “decisions on future drilling are driven by the geological data.”

“America is segregated, and so is pollution,” said Robert Bullard, director of the Bullard Center for Environmental and Climate Justice at Texas Southern University. “The dirty industries, and what planners call locally unwanted land uses, oftentimes followed the path of least resistance. Historically, that’s been poor communities and communities of color.”

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The pattern is evident well outside the Arlington area, too. When gas pumped in Texas is shipped out for export, it goes to liquid natural gas facilities along the Gulf Coast. Many of those facilities are near communities, like those in Port Arthur, Texas, that are predominantly non-white.

“There’s constant talk of expansions here,” said John Beard, founder of the Port Arthur Community Action Network, which opposes the expansion of export facilities. “When you keep adding this to the air, the air quality degrades, and so does our quality of life and so does our health.

"Once again, we’re being sacrificed.”

_______

At the Arlington day care, Wanda Vincent, the owner, has been cautioning parents about the health risks and gathering signatures to petition the City Council to reject Total’s drilling request. When she opened the facility nearly two decades ago, Vincent wanted to provide a refuge for children in her care, some of whom suffer from hunger and poverty.

Ranjana Bhandari, executive director of Liveable Arlington, works on a laptop at her home in Arlington, Texas, on Tuesday, Oct. 26, 2021. More than a decade ago, Bhandari and her neighbors convinced an oil and gas company to locate a natural gas drill site farther away from their homes. Now she is helping residents in other Arlington neighborhoods, particularly those with fewer resources, to do the same. She has taken particular aim at TEP Barnett, a subsidiary of French energy giant Total Energies, which has 33 well sites in Arlington and more in neighboring communities. (AP Photo/Martha Irvine) © Provided by Associated Press Ranjana Bhandari, executive director of Liveable Arlington, works on a laptop at her home in Arlington, Texas, on Tuesday, Oct. 26, 2021. More than a decade ago, Bhandari and her neighbors convinced an oil and gas company to locate a natural gas drill site farther away from their homes. Now she is helping residents in other Arlington neighborhoods, particularly those with fewer resources, to do the same. She has taken particular aim at TEP Barnett, a subsidiary of French energy giant Total Energies, which has 33 well sites in Arlington and more in neighboring communities. (AP Photo/Martha Irvine)

That was before natural gas production accelerated in the United States. Around 2005, energy companies discovered how to drill horizontally into shale formations using hydraulic fracturing techniques. With this technique, known as fracking, water and chemicals are shot deep underground into a well bore that travels horizontally. It is highly effective. But fracking is known to contribute to air and water pollution and to raise risks to people and the environment.

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Vincent worries that the political winds in Arlington have shifted since last year and that the council will approve Total's new request.

“The world was dealing with what happened with George Floyd," she said. “The meeting was emotional, just listening to the speakers that were talking and then sharing their hearts and saying, ‘Well, we want to do more. We want to, you know, racially do better.’ And I was encouraged. But you know what? Nothing has really changed since then.”

Some states have acted to force fracking away from residents. Colorado last year required new wells to be drilled at least 2,000 feet from homes and schools. California has proposed a limit of 3,200 feet. Los Angeles has taken steps to ban urban drilling. Vermont and New York state banned fracking years ago.

Stefan Powdrill, 19, right, sits with his 6-year-old sister, Kahea Street, on the front porch of their home in Arlington, Texas, Sunday, Oct. 24, 2021. Powdrill, who is working to become a firefighter for the city, also has been active in local politics and has spoken at hearings about his opposition to adding more natural gas wells in the city. His family's home is near two of many well sites in the city, which sits atop what is known as the Barnett Shale, one of the geological formations that is a rich source of natural gas that's used in this country and, increasingly, shipped overseas. (AP Photo/Martha Irvine) © Provided by Associated Press Stefan Powdrill, 19, right, sits with his 6-year-old sister, Kahea Street, on the front porch of their home in Arlington, Texas, Sunday, Oct. 24, 2021. Powdrill, who is working to become a firefighter for the city, also has been active in local politics and has spoken at hearings about his opposition to adding more natural gas wells in the city. His family's home is near two of many well sites in the city, which sits atop what is known as the Barnett Shale, one of the geological formations that is a rich source of natural gas that's used in this country and, increasingly, shipped overseas. (AP Photo/Martha Irvine)

In Arlington, drilling is supposed to occur no closer than 600 feet from day care centers or homes. But companies can apply for a waiver from the City Council to drill as close as 300 feet.

Pamela Polk sits next to the home she rents in Arlington, Texas, on Monday, Oct. 25, 2021. A TEP Barnett fracking site, hidden by the fence and trees behind her, sits just a few hundred feet from the house and those of her neighbors, most of them also renters. TEP Barnett is a subsidiary of French energy giant Total Energies. Polk has chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and, since moving in a decade ago, said her grandson has developed asthma. She worries that the well site has had an impact on their health. © Provided by Associated Press Pamela Polk sits next to the home she rents in Arlington, Texas, on Monday, Oct. 25, 2021. A TEP Barnett fracking site, hidden by the fence and trees behind her, sits just a few hundred feet from the house and those of her neighbors, most of them also renters. TEP Barnett is a subsidiary of French energy giant Total Energies. Polk has chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and, since moving in a decade ago, said her grandson has developed asthma. She worries that the well site has had an impact on their health. "I'm frustrated," she said. (AP Photo/Martha Irvine)

France, Total’s home country, bars fracking. But that ban is largely symbolic because no meaningful oil or gas supplies exist in France. So Total, one of the world’s largest players in natural gas, drills in 27 other countries. It turns much of that gas into liquid, then ships it, trades it and re-gasifies it at LNG terminals worldwide.

The gas wells next to Mother’s Heart represent just a tiny fraction of Total’s global operations. Yet the company holds tight to its plans to drill there despite the community's resistance.

A fence surrounds an abandoned playground near a natural gas well site in Arlington, Texas, on Sunday, Oct. 24, 2021. The playground at the Cornerstone Baptist Church and school was closed because it is about 400 feet from wells at the site, which is now operated by TEP Barnett, a subsidiary of French energy giant Total Energies. Church leaders signed a deal with the original well site owners to use the land for drilling and say they have received a © Provided by Associated Press A fence surrounds an abandoned playground near a natural gas well site in Arlington, Texas, on Sunday, Oct. 24, 2021. The playground at the Cornerstone Baptist Church and school was closed because it is about 400 feet from wells at the site, which is now operated by TEP Barnett, a subsidiary of French energy giant Total Energies. Church leaders signed a deal with the original well site owners to use the land for drilling and say they have received a "substantial" amount of royalties. A new playground was built about 200 feet to the north of this one, putting it just beyond the 600 feet minimum required by the city of Arlington. (AP Photo/Martha Irvine)

“Nobody should have a production ban unless they have a consumption ban, because it has made places like Arlington extraction colonies for countries like France, and they have shifted the environmental toll, the human toll, to us,” said Ranjana Bhandari, director of Liveable Arlington, the group leading the opposition to Total’s drilling plans.

Jan Porter, center, facing stage, and other parishioners at the Cornerstone Baptist Church in Arlington, Texas, sing and celebrate during a morning service on Sunday, Oct. 24, 2021. Porter, a former church elder, says the church and its mission work in the community have benefitted greatly from © Provided by Associated Press A staff member at the Mother's Heart Learning Center, in background, opens a door to let children inside from the center's playground in Arlington, Texas, on Monday, Oct. 25, 2021. The fracking pond in the foreground is part of a natural gas drill site, known as "AC-360," a few hundred feet from the daycare. The site is operated by TEP Barnett, a subsidiary of French energy giant Total Energies. It is one of Total's 33 well sites in Arlington containing 163 natural gas wells, most of them tucked in urban neighborhoods in Arlington. (AP Photo/Martha Irvine)

In Arlington, companies that are rejected for a drilling permit may reapply after a year. Some Arlington council members have said they fear litigation if they don’t allow the drilling. That's because a Texas law bars localities from banning, limiting or even regulating oil or gas operations except in limited circumstances. (Arlington officials declined to be interviewed.)

While sitting in a car with her husband, Gloria Allen looks at instructions for an asthma inhaler outside a pharmacy in Dallas on Tuesday, Oct. 26, 2021. The couple lives near a compressor station for natural gas in Dalworthington Gardens, Texas. Gloria Allen said that, after two years living there, she was diagnosed with asthma. © Provided by Associated Press While sitting in a car with her husband, Gloria Allen looks at instructions for an asthma inhaler outside a pharmacy in Dallas on Tuesday, Oct. 26, 2021. The couple lives near a compressor station for natural gas in Dalworthington Gardens, Texas. Gloria Allen said that, after two years living there, she was diagnosed with asthma. "It's driving me crazy," she said of fumes in her neighborhood that often come from the direction of the station. "It's coming through the fence. I smell it in the house. I'm going to move. I can't take it." (AP Photo/Martha Irvine)

“If I’m able to reach out to the French and speak to them directly, I would let them know, ‘Would you be able to allow somebody to go in your back yard and do natural gas drilling where you know your wife lays her head or your kids lay their head?’ " said Philemond, the day care center parent. "And the answer would absolutely be ‘No’ within a second."

___

A mile or so from the day care, in the back yard of Frank and Michelle Meeks, a high-pitched ringing blares like a school fire alarm as the sun sets. Just beyond their patio and grill looms the wall of another Total well site, where one of the wells was in the "flowback” stage, according to the City of Arlington. Flowback occurs when fracking fluids and debris are cleared from the wellbore before gas production begins. This site, which stretches behind many neighborhood houses, is near two day care centers.

The ringing goes on and on. When the wells were initially drilled, Michelle Meeks said, the sound and vibrations were a full-body experience. At this point, she and her husband barely notice it.

After the drilling started a decade ago at the site, a few hundred feet behind their house, they noticed cracks in their foundation and across their backyard patio. They now receive royalty checks for $15 or $20 a few times a year. That money wouldn’t make a dent in the cost of repairing the cracks in their foundation. But when the oil and gas developers came knocking years ago, the couple thought that saying no would have been futile.

Retiree Patrick Vancooper tends to his garden on a strip of land between an alley and a fence on Monday, Oct. 25, 2021, in Dalworthington Gardens, Texas, a small municipality that's tucked within the city of Arlington. Vancooper's home is near a compressor station for natural gas. Fumes can often be smelled in the neighborhood, depending on which way the wind blows, but he says his neighbors rarely question what it is. (AP Photo/Martha Irvine) © Provided by Associated Press Retiree Patrick Vancooper tends to his garden on a strip of land between an alley and a fence on Monday, Oct. 25, 2021, in Dalworthington Gardens, Texas, a small municipality that's tucked within the city of Arlington. Vancooper's home is near a compressor station for natural gas. Fumes can often be smelled in the neighborhood, depending on which way the wind blows, but he says his neighbors rarely question what it is. (AP Photo/Martha Irvine)

“In Texas, you really can’t fight oil and gas production,” said Frank Meeks, a 60-year-old machine operator. “We don’t have the money to go and get big-time lawyers to keep them out of our back yards.”

A warning sign marks a natural gas pipeline outside a compressor station on Monday, Oct. 25, 2021, in Dalworthington Gardens, Texas, a small municipality that's tucked within the city of Arlington. Compressor stations like this one change the pressure of the natural gas to help move it through the lines. Increasingly, natural gas ends up at facilities on the Gulf Coast where it is converted into liquid natural gas, or LNG, so it can be shipped to Europe, Asia and other parts of the world. Natural gas is used to heat homes and for cooking, among other things. (AP Photo/Martha Irvine) © Provided by Associated Press A warning sign marks a natural gas pipeline outside a compressor station on Monday, Oct. 25, 2021, in Dalworthington Gardens, Texas, a small municipality that's tucked within the city of Arlington. Compressor stations like this one change the pressure of the natural gas to help move it through the lines. Increasingly, natural gas ends up at facilities on the Gulf Coast where it is converted into liquid natural gas, or LNG, so it can be shipped to Europe, Asia and other parts of the world. Natural gas is used to heat homes and for cooking, among other things. (AP Photo/Martha Irvine)

A few miles away, Pamela Polk cares for her autistic 21-year-old grandson in a modest home she rents across the fence from another Total gas well site. She has chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. And since they moved in a decade ago, her grandson developed asthma.

Arlington's air quality exceeds federal ozone pollution standards set by the EPA. In 2012, at the height of the fracking boom, asthma rates for school-age children in Tarrant County were 19%-25% — far above national and state norms.

John Beard drives near a liquid natural gas facility in Port Arthur, Texas, on Wednesday, Oct. 27, 2021. It is one of several LNG facilities along the Gulf Coast. As the United States produces more natural gas, increasingly, it is being exported to Asia, Europe and other places. Beard, head of the Port Arthur Community Action Network, says Black and brown communities like Port Arthur are having to bear much of the risk posed by facilities like these, from explosion to impact on air quality. In addition to LNG facilities, Port Arthur is also surrounded by oil refineries and petrochemical plants. © Provided by Associated Press John Beard drives near a liquid natural gas facility in Port Arthur, Texas, on Wednesday, Oct. 27, 2021. It is one of several LNG facilities along the Gulf Coast. As the United States produces more natural gas, increasingly, it is being exported to Asia, Europe and other places. Beard, head of the Port Arthur Community Action Network, says Black and brown communities like Port Arthur are having to bear much of the risk posed by facilities like these, from explosion to impact on air quality. In addition to LNG facilities, Port Arthur is also surrounded by oil refineries and petrochemical plants. "Port Arthur's what's called the American Sacrifice Zone," Beard said. (AP Photo/Martha Irvine)

“You’d think they would at least put a flyer in the mailbox or something, you know?” Polk said. “I’m frustrated. I mean, we pay taxes, you know, even though we’re renters, we still pay taxes.”

The site is a quarter-mile from two day cares. Polk notices teenagers playing on the other side of the fence in the field adjacent to the drill site.

“The biggest thing that worries me," she said, “is kids.”

_______

Around Arlington, drilling has imposed higher costs — literally — on lower-income neighborhoods than on more affluent areas. As the fracking boom took off, "land men” from the oil and gas companies went door to door in Arlington, asking permission to drill beneath homes of those who owned mineral rights. Some homeowners were offered signing bonuses and royalties. Renters like Polk, and others who don't own the rights to the minerals beneath their homes, had no choice but to yield to drilling — and received nothing for it.

By contrast, when land men came knocking in Bhandari's wealthier neighborhood 15 years ago, she and her neighbors, a lawyer among them, joined forces. Some opposed fracking. Others wanted higher royalty payments. In the end, the company, which had sought to drill next to a park, situated its well pad a mile away. Now, Bhandari is trying to help less affluent neighborhoods push back on drilling.

A man, center, works at one of several natural gas well sites operated by TEP Barnett in Arlington, Texas, on Sunday, Oct. 24, 2021. TEP Barnett, a subsidiary of French energy giant Total Energies, has 33 well sites in Arlington with 163 wells, many of them tucked in urban neighborhoods. This site, called © Provided by Associated Press A man, center, works at one of several natural gas well sites operated by TEP Barnett in Arlington, Texas, on Sunday, Oct. 24, 2021. TEP Barnett, a subsidiary of French energy giant Total Energies, has 33 well sites in Arlington with 163 wells, many of them tucked in urban neighborhoods. This site, called "Rocking Horse," is next door to medical offices, homes and two daycares. While some residents oppose drilling so close to them, a TEP Barnett spokeswoman said the company operates in a "safe and environmentally responsible manner" and listens to the concerns of the community. (AP Photo/Martha Irvine)

Arlington sits atop the Barnett Shale, one of the largest on-land natural gas fields in the United States. Gas production, which peaked in the Barnett Shale a decade ago, has been declining. Even with natural gas prices rising, few large U.S. companies plan to drill new wells at a time when investors are increasingly seeking environmentally responsible companies.

“Total is a publicly traded company. They claim to be very interested in the energy transition and so forth,” said Bruce Bullock, director of the Maguire Energy Institute at Southern Methodist University. “If a U.S. company were to do that here that was publicly traded, their stock would be hammered.”

Not only is Total among the few operators that are actively seeking new wells in the Barnett Shale. It's also drilled closer to population centers than have other companies over the past eight years, according to an analysis by S&P Global Platts.

Juscianni Blackeller, 13, center, walks with his sisters, Adaliana and Audrey Gray, ages 5 and 2, near their home in Arlington, Texas, on Monday, Oct. 25, 2021. As their mother, Rosalia Tejeda, has learned more about health risks posed by fracking for natural gas, she has become a vocal opponent of a plan to add more gas wells at a site near their home. © Provided by Associated Press Juscianni Blackeller, 13, center, walks with his sisters, Adaliana and Audrey Gray, ages 5 and 2, near their home in Arlington, Texas, on Monday, Oct. 25, 2021. As their mother, Rosalia Tejeda, has learned more about health risks posed by fracking for natural gas, she has become a vocal opponent of a plan to add more gas wells at a site near their home. "They're everything I live for. Everything I breathe for," Tejeda said. "And just the thought of having them suffer any kind of ailment due to something that is possibly in my control, it would I would kill me." (AP Photo/Martha Irvine)

Some in Arlington have managed to benefit from the drilling. At Cornerstone Baptist Church recently, a dozen choir members belted out hymns while congregants clapped and waved hands. A rainbow of lights illuminated a cross hanging above. Balloons and ferns decorated the stage, flanked by outsize screens showcasing the singers.

The church, which allowed Total to drill for gas on its land about a decade ago, collected royalties that helped support food giveaways, as well as other churches, said Jan Porter, a former church elder.

“It’s enabled us," he said, “to do ministries that we might not have been able to do.”

___

After natural gas is pumped from underground, it moves through pipelines, passing through compressor stations, which help keep the gas moving. About a half-mile west of Polk’s house is a compressor station. Occasionally, a sour smell wafts through the air. As the gas moves through a series of curved pipes, a sound like a giant vacuum arises constantly.

Exposure to emissions of volatile organic compounds from natural gas pipeline compressor stations has been linked to higher death rates, according to a study by Indiana University. When released, these compounds can create ozone, which may exacerbate asthma, bronchitis, emphysema or cause chest pain, throat irritation or reduced lung function, especially in children and older adults. Compressor stations in New York state emitted 39 carcinogenic chemicals, including benzene and formaldehyde, according to a study by the University of Albany. Compressor stations also release methane, a potent climate-warming gas.

A few blocks away, the same sour smell clings to the air as Patrick Vancooper prunes tomato plants and okra he grows on a strip of land between the street and a fence. Many of his neighbors, in a community with pockmarked roads and weathered apartments, don’t know they live near a compressor station.

Signs mark a light hydrocarbon pipeline near a neighborhood in Port Arthur, Texas, on Wednesday, Oct. 27, 2021. The city is home to several oil refineries, including the one in the background of this photo, and is near petrochemical plants and liquid natural gas (LNG) facilities, from which natural gas is increasingly exported to other countries. (AP Photo/Martha Irvine) © Provided by Associated Press Signs mark a light hydrocarbon pipeline near a neighborhood in Port Arthur, Texas, on Wednesday, Oct. 27, 2021. The city is home to several oil refineries, including the one in the background of this photo, and is near petrochemical plants and liquid natural gas (LNG) facilities, from which natural gas is increasingly exported to other countries. (AP Photo/Martha Irvine)

Greg and Gloria Allen were among them. They noticed a smell like raw eggs or a skunk, with a chemical odor too pungent to be an animal. They didn’t know the cause.

When the couple drives down the block near the compressor station, hidden behind a row of commercial properties and a doctor’s office, the fumes are so severe that Gloria Allen, a 59-year-old bus driver for the City of Dallas, gets headaches.

“If they build something like that over there, they should tell us,” she said. “Any time that can be a danger to me and my family, that’s not a place for me.”

After two years living on the block, in a home they share with their 14-year-old grandson, Gloria Allen was diagnosed with asthma. On her day off, she visited her doctor to discuss her symptoms.

The sun sets behind a natural gas drilling site in Arlington, Texas, on Sunday, Oct. 24, 2021. The site, called © Provided by Associated Press The sun sets behind a natural gas drilling site in Arlington, Texas, on Sunday, Oct. 24, 2021. The site, called "Rocking Horse," is operated by TEP Barnett, a subsidiary of French energy giant Total Energies. It is one of the company's 33 drill sites in Arlington that have a total of 163 wells, most of them tucked within urban neighborhoods. Arlington sits above the Barnett Shale, a geological formation rich with natural gas that is released by hydraulic fracturing, also known as fracking. (AP Photo/Martha Irvine)

“It’s driving me crazy,” she said of the odor. “It’s coming through the fence. I smell it in the house. I’m going to move. I can’t take it.”

___

After the fracking boom reshaped communities like Arlington, America wound up with too much natural gas. Yet at the same time, the world’s thirst for it grew. Developers, Total among them, poured billions of dollars into expanding LNG export terminals along the U.S. Gulf Coast, often near communities made up predominantly of people of color.

The nation's largest LNG export facility sits just outside Port Arthur, which is three-quarters non-white. A second export facility is being expanded in Port Arthur. And a third export facility has been proposed.

Beard, of the Port Arthur Community Action Network, worries that chemical leaks could cause a devastating explosion. An LNG export terminal just outside Port Arthur was recently fined for safety violations after hundreds of barrels of liquid natural gas escaped through cracks, vaporized and released 825,000 cubic feet of natural gas into the atmosphere.

Back in Arlington, where the gas supply chain begins, Rosalia Tejeda worries about her three children, who live with her a few blocks from the well site at Mother's Heart. She spoke against the drilling plan at an Arlington planning board meeting in October. She was crushed when the panel voted to approve it, setting up this week's City Council vote.

“Why don’t you be the one standing up for my children — for all these children that are going to suffer in the future?” Tejeda asked. “I mean, it’s crazy to me.”

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AP staffers Angeliki Kastanis in Los Angeles and Francois Duckett in New York contributed to this report.

Overnight Energy & Environment — Presented by ExxonMobil — Biden may get reprieve with gas price drop .
Welcome to Tuesday's Overnight Energy & Environment, your source for the latest news focused on energy, the environment and beyond. Subscribe here: thehill.com/newsletter-signup.Today we're looking at how an expected gas price drop could be a relief for President Biden, the EPA's decision to lower past biofuel blending requirements but reject blending waivers, and a newly announced electric vehicle charging initiative. For The Hill, we'reToday we're looking at how an expected gas price drop could be a relief for President Biden, the EPA's decision to lower past biofuel blending requirements but reject blending waivers, and a newly announced electric vehicle charging initiative.

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