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US: Almost half of U.S. families with young children face high risk of poverty due to insecure employment, research shows

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Among these young children , food insecurity is more likely when immigrant parents are less acculturated, for instance when they are noncitizens, arrived more recently, or have limited English skills. When multiple background characteris- tics are considered simultaneously, parental citizenship in particular is strongly associated with food secu- rity—i.e., infants whose immigrant parents are Some research indicates that foreign-born individuals or children with foreign-born mothers have a higher chance of experiencing food insecurity compared to U . S .born counterparts [11][12][13][14][15][16].

Partnered mothers and fathers with young children face poverty rates about 3 percent higher than their counterparts with no children , after controlling for other factors. Decreased employment and labor force participation among mothers explain much of the income drop associated with having a young child . The U . S . Census Bureau last analyzed childcare arrangements in 2011, focusing on children under age 5. According to this analysis, shown in Figure 2, 61 percent of young children were in some type of regular childcare arrangement while a parent was working or in school.2 More than 2 out of

  • Almost half of American families with young children have faced high risks of falling into poverty, according to new research.
  • That could have lasting effects on how well their children are able to escape the cycle of poverty later in their lives.
  • Policies that help promote stable jobs and decent wages, benefits and child care may help reverse those trends.
  Almost half of U.S. families with young children face high risk of poverty due to insecure employment, research shows © Provided by CNBC

Almost half of U.S. families with young children have faced a high risk of falling into poverty in the first six years of their children's lives, according to new academic research.

What put those families at risk? Insecure or precarious parental work, according to a study from experts at New York University and Washington University.

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Proportion of Americans living below the poverty line in each U . S . state, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico as of the 2015 - 2019 American Community Survey. Number in Poverty and Poverty Rate: 1959 to 2017. The 2020 assessment by the U . S . Census Bureau showed the percentage of Americans living in poverty for 2019 (before the pandemic) had fallen to some of lowest levels ever recorded due to the record-long economic growth period.

Care Research Network has shown that children in chronically im­ poverished families have lower cognitive and academic performance and more behavior problems than chil­ dren who are not exposed to poverty , partially ex­ plained by a lack of stimulating behaviors and home experiences among low-income families .16. poverty on children over the past several decades, rates of poverty remain high , particularly in families with young children ,25 and there has been limited attention to the processes whereby poverty impacts children ’ s education and development.

Four indicators were used to measure whether parents were in less than ideal employment situations: work schedules, occupation, hourly wages and weekly work hours.

If those elements in parents' employment were unstable, their children were more likely to experience poverty in their early years, the research found.

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That had lasting consequences for the children studied, who are now young adults. The data included about 10,000 children born in the U.S. in 2001, and followed them through 2007.

"The early childhood experiences of this young adult generation could have implications for their vulnerability to and resilience with today's precarious job market," the research published in the "Journal of Child and Family Studies" states.

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Children are not the face of this pan-demic. But they risk being among its big-gest victims. While they have thankfully been largely spared from the direct health effects of COVID-19 - at least to date – the crisis is having a profound effect on their wellbeing. shelter in place measures come with heightened risk of children witnessing or suffering violence and abuse. Children in conflict settings, as well as those living in unsanitary and crowded conditions such as refugee and IDP settlements, are also at considerable risk .

Substance use during pregnancy is considered child abuse under civil child -welfare statutes in 23 states, according to the Guttmacher Institute, a pro-choice research institute. In half of all US states, healthcare professionals are required to report pregnant women suspected of using drugs. US medical associations oppose classifying drug use during pregnancy as child abuse and argue that women who have addiction issues should receive treatment, not jail sentences. "Drug addiction is a disease amenable to treatment rather than a criminal activity," according to the American Medical

The findings come as Congress is poised to consider a major social spending package that could have big benefits for families, with proposals including money for child care, a federal paid parental leave program and extended monthly child tax credit payments. It remains to be seen if that package, called Build Back Better, will get the necessary votes from Senate lawmakers.

The data focused on families during economic "golden years" before the Great Recession more than a decade ago, said New York University professor Wen-Jui Han, who co-authored the study, in an interview.

At that time, workers, particularly in those in service industries, faced pressures to work 24/7 as industries faced new demands to stay competitive amid growing globalization, which continues today.

Those working low-wage jobs may have to take two or three jobs and work 12 hours or 16 hours a day, Han said.

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Face masks and other social distancing measures may in fact impede on children ' s development, a new study executed by Brown University has found. The probe analyzed the cognitive development of the youngsters through infancy, childhood and adolescence. In the study, researchers first analyzed 1,070 assessments administered on 605 kids prior to March 2020, when COVID lockdowns and masking began. The authors said that boys from poor backgrounds were most at risk of a drop in cognitive testing scores, with richer parents better able to mitigate the effects of the pandemic.

While that trend did reverse a bit during Covid-19, with more workers able to say no to jobs without benefits or low pay, there is the risk that that may not continue, Han said.

"We are losing the power on the workers' side to negotiate the kind of wages, the kind of benefits, the kind of schedule we really should have to in order to really accommodate our family needs," Han said.

Because children of these workers often live in areas where they cannot access a quality education, it is more difficult for them to break the cycle of poverty and eventually get good paying jobs themselves in adulthood, Han said.

The findings point to a need for policies to address these families' struggles, according to Han, which can not only support children's needs in their early years, but also position them for success later on.

Ideally, that would include guaranteeing stable employment for parents, so they are not at risk of being fired every time there is a recession, while also ensuring decent wages and benefits, as well as child-care services.

"Income support is really very effective to help our families go through that difficult time where they really need financial support the most," Han said.

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